"How Students Perceive Feedback" (online article) expands upon the "four conceptions of feedback" that resulted when students were asked the following questions:
- "What is feedback?"
- "How would you describe it?"
- "How do you go about getting it?"
- "How do you use it?"
Note, "Student conceptions involve underlying personal beliefs, views, and ideas, unlike student perceptions, which explore how the feedback is understood" (emphasis added). The four conceptions of feedback from this study were as follows:
- Feedback as telling
- Feedback as guiding
- Feedback as developing understanding
- Feedback as opening a different perspective