"Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction" (pdf) outlines ten essential elements and three categories of formative assessment as well as four strategies and ten tools for formative assessment.
- Included in the text but not below is also a chart of 14 things "Formative Assessment Do (and 14 that "Formative Assessment DO NOT").
- This post ends with links to 100+ formative assessment activities under "See also."
A. 10 Essential Elements of Formative Assessment
- "Requires students to take responsibility for their own learning."
- "Communicates clear, specific learning goals."
- "Focuses on goals that represent valuable educational outcomes with applicability beyond the learning context."
- "Identifies the student’s current knowledge/skills and the necessary steps for reaching the desired goals."
- "Requires development of plans for attaining the desired goals."
- "Encourages students to self-monitor progress toward the learning goals."
- "Provides examples of learning goals including, when relevant, the specific grading criteria or rubrics that will be used to evaluate the student’s work."
- "Provides frequent assessment, including peer and student self-assessment and assessment embedded within learning activities."
- "Includes feedback that is non-evaluative, specific, timely, and related to the learning goals, and that provides opportunities for the student to revise and improve work products and deepen understandings."
- "Promotes metacognition and reflection by students on their work."
B. 3 Types of Formative Assessment That "Contribute to the Learning Cycle"
- "'[O]n-the-fly' (those that happen during a lesson)"
- "'[P]lanned-for-interaction' (those decided before instruction)"
- "'[C]urriculum-embedded'' (embedded in the curriculum and used to gather data at significant points during the learning process)"
C. 4 Tools and Strategies of Formative Assessment (each elaborated in the text)
- Field Notes - "record[ed] ... descriptions of classroom interactions, avoiding judgment and interpretation until later"
- Running Records and Miscue Analysis
- Checklists and Observation Guides
3. Student Self-Evaluations
"Self-evaluations encourage students to monitor their own learning and learning needs and serve as an additional source of information on student learning " and "can take many forms":
- Rubrics and Checklists
- Process Reflections
- Student-Led Conferences
4. Artifacts of Learning
"[T]eachers review data about individual students or groups of students for the purpose of planning future learning experiences. For example, teachers may":
- "Collect a variety of sources of information on a single learner (case study) in order to identify patterns of understanding across the data set. Data may include samples of student work, notes based on classroom observations, input from other[s] ... as well as standardized assessment data."
- "Review a class set of work samples or observations in order to group students for further instruction or to plan learning experiences for the entire group."
- "Look back at a variety of points along a student’s learning journey ... to see patterns of growth and to identify important next steps."
D. See also