Reflection Toolkit

Decorative: An art mannequin touching a mirror in which it is reflected


A. "Reflection Toolkit" is a web site from The University of Edinburgh that provides "information and support whether you are looking to reflect yourself or facilitate reflection in others."

1. Definition of Reflection

"[R]eflection or critical reflection is defined as":

  • "the conscious examination of past experiences, thoughts and ways of doing things.  Its goal is to surface learning about oneself and the situation, and to bring meaning to it in order to inform the present and the future.  It challenges the status quo of practice, thoughts and assumptions and may therefore inform our decisions, actions, attitudes, beliefs and understanding about ourselves."

2. Uses of Reflection

"Reflection can be used for many things, including":

  • "Allowing us to improve our own practice to gain better outcomes in the future"
  • "Increasing/improving our performance and skills"
  • "Increasing our awareness of our abilities and attributes and our evidence for these"
  • "Developing and expanding our employability"
  • "Evaluating the quality and success of our action plans"
  • "Applying theoretical knowledge/frameworks to real experiences and using this to expand our understanding of the underlying theory."

B. Reflector's Toolkit

"This ... is for people who want to reflect - maybe you already reflect or you have to do reflection in a course."

  • "Here you will find resources, models, and questions that can help you start your reflections as well as structuring them."

1. Reflecting on experience

"Using reflective models is one of the easiest ways to engage with the reflective process. The ones highlighted below will support you with structure, guidance and questions."

2. Goals, objectives and reflective habits

Key points developed: 

  • "Repeating reflection over a series of related experiences adds real value." 
  • "[R]eflection ... applied to review an extended period ... can help identify relevant experiences and learning, and can ensure that valuable learning is not lost."
  • "Setting and reflecting on goals and objectives can help create purposeful progress and can keep your focus and energy where you want it."  
  • Includes "[e]xample approaches for reflecting on goals, objectives and values"

3. Reflecting for self-awareness

4. Reflecting for employability

5. Producing reflections

6. Experiences of reflection

7. List of tools for reflection

a. Models for Reflection

b. Tools for Reflection

C. Facilitators' Toolkit

This section provides "[c]onsiderations and information about how to implement reflection into courses, workshops, and other initiatives."

1. Where to start when facilitating reflection

2. Assessing reflection

  • Assessing assignments (Pros/cons of summative & formative assessment - and instructor, peer-assessment, & self-assessment) 
  • Assessing activities (Assessing output & process of a reflective activity; using peer- and self-assessment)
  • Assessment rubrics (Holistic & analytic rubrics; holistic - "Moon's Four Levels of Reflective Writing" rubric; analytic - "Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool [REFLECT]" rubric).

3. Components of reflective tasks

4. Case studies of reflective practice in the University

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