- "Increase your wait time."
- "Talk about how you think discussion is better when many students participate."
- "Get students to discuss what makes participation a valuable learning experience for them."
- "Don’t let some students participate too often."
- "Listen carefully when students speak and thank them for their contributions."
- "Focus on students when they are speaking."
- "Look directly and encouragingly at students who don’t speak."
- "Use something the student said in your follow-up commentary."
- "Ask a thought-provoking question and give students 30 seconds to jot down some ideas."
- "Put the question (or part of it) on the board or in a PowerPoint presentation."
- "Ask an important question and then let students briefly talk about it with those nearby."
- "If a student offers a great explanation or has an interesting idea, label it with the student’s name and refer to it subsequently."
- "Do your best to find something positive to say about a first-time contribution."
- "Take care when responding to wrong or not-very-good answers."
- "Don’t always have the right answer to every question."
- "Talk informally with students before class begins, after it’s over, when you see students on campus or via email."
- "Define participation broadly."
- "Expect great answers."
B. See also
Weimar, Maryellen. "Strategies That Increase the Number of Students Who Participate in Class." Faculty Focus Premium 1 December 2016.